Addition from Santhanam till Sloka 7. The names of the 27 Nakshatras are Ashvini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrigasira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pushya, Aslesha, Magha, Purvaphalguni, Uttaraphalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishaka, Anuradha, Jyeshtha, Mula, Purvashadh, Uttarashadh, Shravana, Dhanishtha, Satabhisha, Purvabhadra, Uttarabhadra, Revati.
Lagn is a very important point in the horoscope. It is the Rasi, that rises in the East, on the latitude of birth. The apparent rising of a Rasi is due to the rotation of the earth on its own axis at a rate of motion, causing every degree of the zodiac seemingly ascend on the eastern horizon.
Approximately, two hours are required for a Rasi to pass via the horizon, thereby every degree taking four minutes to ascend. This duration, however, is actually dependent on the concerned latitude.
Actually Surya has no motion. His motion is an apparent one, as viewed from the rotating earth. Other Grahas, including the nodes, have varied rates of motion. The average daily motions of the Grahas, which are not, however standard, are, as follows: Surya 1, Candr 13-15, Mangal 30-45’, Budh 65-100’, sukr 62-82’, Guru 5-15’, sani 2’, Rahu/Ketu 3’.
With such different motions, a Grah forms various Drishtis with others. These Drishtis through longitudinal distances have a great deal of utility in Jyotish. This is what Maharishi Parashar suggests to be considered.
7. Details (of astronomical nature) of stars have to be understood by general rules, while I narrate to you about the effects of Grahas and Rasis.
8-9. The positions of the Grahas for a given time be taken, as per Drikganit. And with the help of Rasi durations, applicable to the respective places, Lagn at birth should be known. Now, I tell you about the castes, descriptions and dispositions of the Grahas.
10. Names of Grahas. The names of the nine Grahas, respectively, are Surya, Candr, Mangal, Budh, Guru, sukr, sani, Rahu and Ketu.
11. Benefics and Malefics. Among these, Surya, sani, Mangal, decreasing Candr, Rahu and Ketu (the ascending and the descending nodes of Candr) are malefics, while the rest are benefics. Budh, however, is a malefic, if he joins a malefic.
Addition from Santhanam till Sloka 12-13. When Candr is ahead of Surya, but within 120, she has medium strength. Between 120 to 240 she is very auspicious,( see ‘Atishubhapred’). From 240 to 0 she is bereft of strength. This is Yavanas’ view, vide P. 70 of my English Translation of Saravali. This view is, however, related to Candr’s strength, or otherwise, while waning Candr (Krishna Paksh, dark half) is a malefic and waxing Candr (Shukla Paksh, bright half) is a benefic. Should Candr be Yuti with a benefic, or receiving a Drishti from a benefic, she turns a benefic, even if in a waning state. As regards Budh, we have clear instructions from Maharishi Parashar, that he becomes a malefic, if he joins a malefic. If waning Candr and Budh are together, both are benefics.
12-13. Grah governances. Surya is the soul of all. Candr is the mind. Mangal is one’s strength. Budh is speech-giver, while Guru confers Knowledge and happiness. sukr governs semen (potency), while sani denotes grief.
14-15. Grah cabinet. Of royal status are Surya and Candr, while Mangal is the Army chief. Prince-apparent is Budh. The ministerial Grahas are Guru and sukr. sani is a servant. Rahu and Ketu form the Grah Army.
16-17. Complexions of Grahas. Surya is blood-red. Candr is tawny. Mangal, who is not very tall is blood-red, while Budh’s hue is akin to that of green grass. Tawny, variegated and dark are Guru, sukr and sani in their order.
18. Deities of Grahas. Fire (Agni) (?), Water (Varuna), Subrahmanya (Lord Shiva’s son, following Ganesh), Maha Vishnu, Indra, Shachi Devi (the consort of Lord Indra) and Brahma (?) are the presiding deities of the 7 Grahas in their order.
19. Gender of the Grahas. Budh and sani are neuters. Candr and sukr are females, while Surya, Mangal and Guru are males.
20. Primordial compounds. The Panchabhutas, space, air, fire, water and earth, are, respectively, governed by Guru, sani, Mangal, sukr and Budh.
21. Castes of Grahas. Guru and sukr are Brahmins. Surya is a royal Grah, while Candr and Budh belong to commercial community. sani rules the Sudras (4th caste).
22. Sattvic Grahas are the luminaries and Guru, sukr and Budh are Rajasik, while Mangal and sani are Tamasic.
23. Description of Surya. Surya’s eyes are honey-coloured. He has a square body. He is of clean habits, bilious, intelligent and has limited hair (on his head).
24. Description of Candr. Candr is very windy and phlegmatic. She is learned and has a round body. She has auspicious looks and sweet speech, is fickle-minded and very lustful.