For a novice in general astrology, these observations of the Maharishi may appear quite novel but a little practice of these principles along with those of the general principles current with the astrologers, will show that there will be no difficulty and the predictions based on these combined influences will be found to be more accurate and to the point. The preliminaries should be carefully studied and remembered and the readers should put them cautiously into practice. Theory and practice will make a man perfect. SU. 5. - Darabhagyasulasthargala nidhyatuh. The fourth, second and eleventh places (or planets in them) from the aspecting body are Argalas. SU. 6.-Kamasthathu bhuyasa papanam. Malefics in the third from the aspecting planet give rise to evil Argala. SU. 7.-Rihpha neechakamastha virodhinah. Planets in the tenth, twelfth and third from Argala cause obstruction to such Argala. SU. 8.-Na nyun4 vibalascha. If planets obstructing Argala are fewer or less powerful than those causing Argala, then the power of Argala cannot be affected. SU. 9.-PrQgvastrikone. The houses or planets in trikonas (5 and 9) similarly influence the Argala. SU. 10. - yipareetQm ketoh In the case of Ketu the formation of Argala and obstruction to it must be calculated in the reverse order. . NOTES These sutras require elaborate NOTES as they are highly technical in nature. Unless these are properly understood, further progress in Jaiminisutras will become difficult and doubtful. I n Sanskrit Mathematics, pneumonics of a peculiar kind are used and these must be properly mastered. In, Sutras 32 and 33 of this Pada, Jaimini gives a clue to the decipherment of his Sutras. I have to anticipate a few of the future Sutras here, for the great author himself does so. SU. 23. -Sarvatra savarna Bhava Sasayah. SU. 33.-Na grahah. In the indication or designation of the Rasis and the Bhavas (Signs and Significations) the author has used, for the sake of abbreviation, varnas or single letters. But in the case of planets he has not done so, which means he has used the proper names of the planets and not any letters to indicate them. I shall explain these differences in the NOTES below. We have in Sanskrit a sutra called Ka, Ta, Pa, Yadi. These are also called the Vargas - Kavarga, Tavarga, Pavarga and Yavarga. Kavarga contains Kadi Nava or nine letters commencing from Ka thus -Ka, Kha, Ga, Gha, Jna, Cha, Chha, Ja, Jha, or nine letters. Tavarga or Tadinava-nine letters beginning with Ta-Tu, Tta, Da, Dha, Na, Tha, Thha, Da, Dha, or the nine letters of Ta varga. Pavarga or Padi Pancha-five letters commencing from Pa. They are Pa, Pha, Ba, Bha, Ma five letters. Yavarga yadyahrau or eight letters from Ya. They are Ya, Ra, La, Va, Ssa. Sha, Saand Ha, for the 8 letters of Ya varga. After having learnt these the next sutra in Sanskrit Mathematics is Ankanum Vamato ghtihi. · · Though Suryanarain Rao has elucidated the abbreviations used by Jaimini to imply numerals I propose to make some observations for the benefit of the reader The system of pneumonics employed here is called Katapayadi system. The consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet have keen used in the place of the numbers 1-9 and zero to express number:. There are different variant: of this system but I shall explain the most commonly accepted method. • (n) and • (n) and the vowels denote zero. The letter: in succession beginning with Ka (•), Ta (•), Pa (q) and Ya (•) denote the digits ; in a conjoint consonant, e.g., Kya (•) only the last one denotes a number According to this system therefore the letters ka (•) ta (•) pa C_) Ya (•) denotes 1. kha (•) tta (¥) pha (•) ra (•) " 2. 9a (•) da (s) ba (•) la (•) " 3. gha (•) dha (•) bha (•) va (•) " 4. nga (•) na (•) ma (•), ssa (•) " 5. cha (s) tha (_) sha (•) ., 6. chha (•) thha (•) sa (•) " 7. a (•) da (•) ha (•) " 8. jha (•) dha (•) " 9. A right to left arrangement Is employed in the formation of chronograms i.e., the letter denoting units figure is first written, than follows the letter denoting the tens figure and so on, e.g., ra me ` 2 6- 62. Jaimini divides the figure so obtained by 12 and takes the remainder as denoting a particular sign of the zodiac as reckoned from Mesha. All figures in Astronomy, Inscriptions and Mathematics should be read in the reverse order or as the Mohammedans read from right to left. The explanations of the following sutras make these aphorisms easy to understand. . Jaimini uses the word Argala to mean a sort of obstruction or impediment for the free flow of planetary influences. A planet in a certain house from any desired Bhava or signification or planet, prevents or obstructs the progress of the influence and thereby diminishes its value and. usefulness. These five Sutras give explanations about these Argala. influences and obstructions and they must be carefully treasured up. There are two varieties of Argala : shubha or beneficial, and papa or malefic. Dara contains two Sanskrit letters da and ra. Da according ' to Tavarga given above, represents the 8th letter in that group and hence stands for the figure 8. Ra represents the 2nd letter in the Yavarga, and hence stands for the digit 2-thus we have by the word dara 82. Reading this by the above mathematical Sutra in the reverse order we get 28. There are 12 signs or Rasis and when 28 is divided by 12, we get 4 as the remainder. Therefore Dara means the fourth house, representing the Argala from any desired significance or planet. Now the peculiarity is this Dara in Sanskrit language means wife and in general astrology, when we say Dara or Darasthana, we signify the 7th house from Lagna for a male horoscope. But Dara in Jaimini by the rules he has laid down means Four and not Seven. Bhagya. By the letter interpretation process-Bha is the fourth in the Pavarga and stands therefore for 4, Gya in Sanskrit is composed of Ga, and Ya the letter underneath the former Ga, and in all compound or conjoined letters the lower letter has to be taken into account and not the upper. Thus we have here Ya, and it is the first letter in Yavarga and stands for 1. We have therefore 41. Reading in the reverse order we get 14 and this divided by 12 will give us a remainder of 2. Bhagya-2. Therefore the 2nd house or planet from any given Bhava also becomes an Argala planet or obstruction. Sula is composed of Ssa and La. In the Vavarga, Ssa stands as the fifth letter and represents 5. La represents the 3rd letter in Yavarga and therefore stands for 3. We thus get the figure 53. But reading in the reverse order we have 35, Divided by 12 we get a remainder of 11 and therefore Sula stands for 11. Those planets which are in 4, 2 and 11 from any planet or Bhava in question or under consideration, become classified as Argala and obstruct their influences. In Sutra 6 if many evil planets, more than two as the plural is used, are found in Kama or 3rd house, they also then become Argala. Ka stands as in Kavarga and Ma stands as 5 in the Pavarga. Therefore we have 15. Reading in the reverse order we get 51. Divide this by 12 and we have the remainder 3. Therefore Kama stands for the 3rd house. Kama in Sanskrit means Cupid, passions, wife and desires. In the general astrological literature, Kama means the 7th house representing husband or wife as the horoscope may belong to a female or a male human being. But by the interpretation by letters as directed by the author, it means the third. As it is stated here the planets become Argala in the 3rd only when there are more than 2 evil planets in the 3rd from the questioning planets or Bhava. But suppose there is only one evil planet in the 3rd house, then by implication it does not become Argala for the planet or Bhava. In Sutra 7, Ripha means 10, Ra in Yavarga stands for 2 as it is the second letter from Ya and Pha is the second letter .in the Pavarga and therefore represents 2, putting together we get 22. Divide this by 12 we have a balance of 10. Neecha stands for 12. Na represents O in the Tavarga as it stands as the 10th from Ta and therefore represents cipher. We have only 9 Ankas or digits and the 10th shows a zero. Cha stands as the 6th letter from Tavarga and represents 6, putting together we have 06. Reading in the reverse order we have 60. Divided by 12 there will be no balance, but the author asks the readers to take always the last balance and when 60 is divided by 12 it goes four times (48) and the last balance is 12. Therefore Neecha stands for 12. Kama, we have already seen, means 3. Those planets which are in 10, 12 and 3 form an obstruction to the Argala mentioned in Sutra 5. Here probably the meaning is that the Argala influences, formed by planets mentioned in Sutra 5, good or bad, are themselves modified or obstructed by the planetary positions mentioned in this Sutra. Those planets which are in the 5th and 9th or Trikonas counteract the influences of the Argala planets as explained before. It has been already stated that certain planets in certain house cause Argala or obstruction and those which are in the 5th and 9th counteract these Argala influences. Coming to Sutra 8, if fewer planets or powerless or disabled planets cause obstruction in Sutra 7 to the Argala generated in Sutra 5, then they will not affect the power of that Argala. Here it means that the obstructive Argala created in Sutra 7, unless the planets are strong, will not be able to obstruct the Argala influences caused by planetary positions mentioned in Sutra 5. Sutra 9 is clear and needs no further explanation. With reference to Ketu the order must be reversed (Sutra 10). The 9th from Ketu becomes Argala and the 5th from him becomes Pratibandhaka or obstruction. The name of Rahu is not mentioned in the original, but some commentators are of opinion that the mention of Ketu is enough to include Rahu. Sutras are short and certainly require clearer explanations. Those beneficial planets who are in Dara 4, Bhagya 2, and Shula 11 from Ketu do not form Argala. The malefics in the 3rd and 8th from Ketu do not form Papargala or evil obstruction. Argala seems to be a sort of force or energy, caused by certain positions of the planets, and this energy may be beneficial or malicious. Power may be good or bad as it is used. In the case of Rahu and Ketu the Argala results must be calculated in the reverse order. From the 11 th Sutra Jaimini gives the rules which will guide the student in determining the lordship of the various relations and events, which have to be taken into consideration, in the career of an individual. SU. 11.-Atmadhikaha kaladibhirna bhogassaptanamashtamva. " Of the seven planets from the Sun to Saturn, or the eight planets from the Sun to Rahu, whichever gets the highest number of degrees becomes the Atmakaraka. NOTES The word Ashtanamva is emphasised because Rahu, instead of being mixed with other planets, seems to have been separated for a certain set purpose. The meaning becomes evident when we refer to Parasara according to whom also, Rahu fills up the gap-when two planets (of the seven) possess the same number of degrees. If two or three planets obtain the same Ka/as or degrees and minutes, they are all merged into one Karaka or Lordship over some event in the human life. The vacancies caused by the merges of two or three planets into one have to be supplied by Rahu in the reverse of order. The other Karaka will be supplied by the Naisargika Karakas or permanent lords. This is a difficult Sutra and requires some clear explanations. While all the planets have got movements from left to right or direct. Rahu and Ketu move in the reverse order or from right to left. The first is called the Savyam or Pradakshinam (dextral) and the Other is called Apasavyam or Apradakshinam (sinistral). Rahu and Ketu have no houses but, Jaimini gives lordship of Kumbha to Rahu and Vrischika to Ketu. They have been given lordships over some human events. In any horoscope, the first duty of an honest astrologer is to find out the exact positions of all the planets. This implies a good knowledge in Astronomy and astrologic- mathematics. Then the degrees, minutes and seconds of the positions of the planet are calculated and placed correctly, then the student will be able to find out which planet has got the highest number of Kalas or degrees in a horoscope. Whoever has got the highest number of Kalas, becomes the Atmakaraka. These Karakatwas or Lordships, therefore, can be acquired according to these Sutras by any planet. Whereas in Naisargika, Karakas or permanent lordships are fixed for ever. In Naisargika, the Karakas or Lordships are thus detailed : In Brihat Jataka, Ravi, Chandra, Sani and Sukra are given different Karakaships: Diva arkasukrow pitru. matru soungnitou. This means that persons born during the day have the Sun and Venus as lords of the father and mother respectively. Sanaischarendu nisi tadviparyayat. For persons born during the nights, Sani becomes Matrukaraka and Indu or Chandra becomes the lord of father. I have simply drawn the attention of the readers to the various versions given by the different authors. Here we may have Pitrukaraka (1) Ravi in the Naisargika 'method', (2) Chandra as Pitrukaraka for those who are born in the night and (3) any planet out of the nine who gets or contains the largest number of degrees in a horoscope. Then the question arises as to how a student has to be guided in determining the prosperity and adversity of a person's father. Suppose in the Jaimini system Sani becomes Pitrukaraka : Chandra becomes Pitrukaraka by the direction of Brihat Jataka and by the general or Naisargike system, Ravi becomes the Pitrukaraka. These three planets, viz., Ravi, Chandra and Sani are thoroughly different in characteristics and these variations, expounded by the learned in Astrology, instead of helping a student in the progress of the studies will confound him and launch him into greater doubts and confusion. When different systems, apparently contradictory, are enunciated by eminent Maharishis the wisest thing would be, in my humble opinion and experience, to take all of them into careful consideration, add his own experience, judge all of them with a diligent eye and make a harmonious whole so that all of them may prove successful and satisfactory. Take half a dozen medical experts in remote corners of the world. They experiment and hit upon certain herbs or roots as efficacious for certain diseases. Each one succeeds with a certain class, and thinks they may prove useful. If all of them have succeeded and the results of their experiments satisfactory, then a wise physician carefully NOTES the characteristics of such of those drugs and roots and he may succeed even better than any one of the original experimenters, by a judicious use of them suitable to times and conditions of life. Maharishis, by their expanded vision, watched and recorded their experiences from different mental visions, and gave principles in. all such sciences, which, though contradictory on the surface, will be found to be agreeable on a deeper analysis. Different systems have mentioned different periods for death and other important events of human life. Bhattotpala, the great commentator of Varahamihira's works; hits on a nice system of reconciliation and I refer my readers for clearer explanations on my NOTES to Dasantardasa chapter in Brihat Jataka. A man may live upto 70 or 80 years and may have passed through various critical conditions. He will be killed in the period of the strongest death-inflicting planet and have critical dangers during other evil periods. Take the longevity question. We have the Udu Dasa or length of life measured by the planets according to the constellations ruling at birth. We have secondly Kalachakra Dasas and the longevity given by them. Third, we have the Graha Datta Pindayuryoga or the term of life given by the planets to the Foetus at the time of conception. Fourth, we have the Amsayurdaya recommended by Satyacharya and followed by Varahamihira. Fifth, we have the longevity determined by the Gochara movements of the planets. Sixth, the longevity as determined by the kendra Ayurdaya. Seventh, we have the Dasantardasa Ayurdaya. Then, eighthly, we have the Ashtakavarga Bindusodhana Ayurdaya. These eight systems certainly give divergent views and different terms. If so, what should the astrological student do when all the eight systems give eight different periods. Bhattotpala, whom we have not seen a more learned commentator on astrological works in recent times, reconciles these different systems in the following manner : say a person lives for 50 years and gets various periods of longevity from 3 years to 50 years. The suggestion of Bhattotpala stands to reason. Suppose the eight systems give the following terms of life -3,10,15, 20, 27, 35, 40 and 50 we are asked to prescribe the longest term obtained as the longevity, and the terms indicated by the other systems will be periods in the life of the person which will be very critical and during which he. will suffer from severe diseases, dangers, or accidents, but he will manage to get over them and live upto the longest term, viz., 60 years as shown by one of those systems. Jaiminisutras offer the same explanations. In the typical case Sani, Chandra and Ravi, representing father in the case of a single person, then the age and prosperity of the father will be determined by the most powerful among them. It may also happen that by the three systems, Ravi may become the lord of father. Then he will live longer and be more prosperous and happy. The merging of two or three planets into one karaka has to be fully explained. Unless I give some illustration, the readers will not be able to follow these sutras. The sutra says that whichever planet gets the highest number of degrees, becomes the Atmakaraka. Suppose in a horoscope two planets get the same number of degrees ; then both of them will become Atmakaraka. Take Sani and Chandra in a horoscope, and say they have got each 29 degrees and ten minutes. As per the above sutra, both of them become merger into one, viz., Atmakaraka. When both of them become representing one event, viz., Atmakaraka, there will be a vacancy for some other karakatwa say Chandra has merged into Sani and his place, representing matrukaraka or

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