some other karaka, falls vacant. This, Jaimini says, will be supplied by- Rahu. As Rahu and Ketu move in the reverse, they will be considered as getting the highest number of degrees when they are at the beginning of a sign. In the above illustration, suppose Sani has 29o and 10' in Aries as also Chandra. Then they will naturally have travelled all over Mesha and will be within fifty minutes from Vrishabha. Sani and other planets move from Mesha to Vrishabha, Mithuna, Kataka, and so forth, whereas Rahu moves in the reverse order, viz., from Vrishabha . to Mesha and Mesha to Meena. Rahu will have obtained 29a and 10' when he is 50' from Meena, for Rahu gains each degree as he enters Mesha from Vrishabha and moves on to the 1St degree of Mesha before he enters into the next sign Meena. Here as Chandra has merged into Sani, Rahu takes that karakatwa which Chandra as a separate planet would have taken. Suppose Budha also gets the same degrees, and these three represent one karakatwa or signification. Suppose now brothers have to be represented. Then Jaimini says take the Nisarga Karaka, Kuja, and give him the control over brothers. etc., attributed to Kuja in the general literature in Astrology. SU. 12.--Saeeshtay bandhamokshayoh. Atmakaraka gives bad and good results by virtue of malefic and benefic dispositions such as debility, exaltation, etc. NOTES When the Atmakaraka is in exaltation or in beneficial Rasis or conjunctions, though the person is imprisoned he will be liberated, will live in holy places and will have Moksha or Final Emancipation. But when he is in Neecha Rasi or with evil conjunctions and aspects he will be imprisoned, will suffer from chains and other tortures, and will not have Moksha. But it this debilitated planet has beneficial aspects or conjunctions, he will be liberated. The idea seems to be the securing of final salvation. If the Atmakaraka is exalted and has beneficial aspects and conjunctions without any malicious influences the man will get the final Bliss called Moksha, so ardently coveted by all devotees and the yogis. They desire nothing more than this state of bliss. Here Bandha and Moksha may be interpreted as malefic and benefic results. SU. 13,-Thasyanusaranadamatyaha. The planet who is next in kalas or degrees to Atmakaraka will become Amatyakaraka. NOTES By careful mathematical calculations the student should first find out the positions of planets correctly in degrees and minutes. Then fix them up in the horoscope and place the Lagna also in degrees and minutes. It will be very easy to fix all the planets and also the Lagna in their vargas or minute divisions by proper calculations. Unless this part of the work is done satisfactorily the application of the principles of Astrology, enunciated by Jaimini or other Maharishis, will not be possible. And when the foundation is not well laid and solidly built, the superstructure can never be durable or lasting. After the planets are placed correctly in their degrees and minutes, it becomes easy for a student to find out who gets the highest number of degrees of Kalas. whoever gets the largest number take him as the Atmakaraka. The planet who gets the next highest degrees will be Amatyakaraka. Probably when the Amatya or Mantrikaraka is powerful and well combined and aspected the person will become a great Minister or Councillor. But when he is ill combined and badly aspected and debilitated he becomes an evil Councillor or an adviser who brings disgrace on himself and also on those to whom he offers his counsel. SU. 14,-Tasya bhratha. The planet who gets the highest number of degrees next to Amatyakaraka becomes Bhratrukaraka or gets lordship over brothers. NOTES If the Bhratrukaraka is debilitated, joins evil planets and has malicious aspects then there will be ruination to brothers. He, will have no brothers or, if he gets them, they will die or become wretched, poor and disgraceful. If, on the other hand, the Bhratrukaraka is exalted, well combined and well aspected there will be plenty of brothers and prosperity and success will attend on them. In the world we have experience of various sorts and all these are indicated by the astrological authors. SU. 15. - Tasya mriatha. - The planet who gets the highest number of degrees next to Bhratrukaraka becomes lord of the mother or Matrukaraka. SU. 16. - Tasya putraha The planet who is next in power in degrees to Matrukaraka becomes the lord of the children or Putrakaraka. NOTES The Sanskrit Sciences have attached the greatest importance to the birth of children. Without children a home is designated as a burial ground or smasana or cemetery. Aputrasya gatirnasti observe the Vedas. This means that a man who has no children will have no heaven or Moksha. There is a special Hellish River called the Put. One who no Putra will not be able to cross this river Put. He is called a Putra who enables the parents to cross this river. If he does not cross it, he will have no salvation and he cannot go to regions of bliss. In this world what can give a person greater pleasure than the possession of healthy, intelligent, obedient and prosperous children ? What can delight the hearts of the parents more than the playing round about them of their happy children ? Can the work of creation continue without children 1 If there are no children, then the human species must cease to exist and the world will be depopulated. Children thus become an absolute necessity, for the continuation of the human species. But in getting children, there is a very great variety. Temperaments are various and curious. It is no doubt a source of great pleasure for a man to have children but what is the good of getting bad, deformed, repulsive, ungrateful, depraved and rascally children who are antagonistic to their parents, who are immoral, cheats and otherwise quite undesirable to society, to the nation and to the family. Where the Putrakaraka is well situated, exalted, in good Shadvargas, in beneficial conjunctions and aspects, the children will be blessed with all the virtues which make them agreeable, happy, prosperous and dutiful to parents. The greatest Epic in India, viz., Ramayana teaches the excellent duties of children towards their parents and Sri Rama is the noblest conception and embodiment of the duties towards the parents, relations, friends and the public citizens under his royal care. It is better to have no children than to have bad and ungrateful ones. SU. 17.-Thasya gnathihi. The planet who gets less degrees than those of Putrakaraka becomes Gnathikaraka or lord of the cousins. Among all the nations of the world, cousins form one important item, in making the domestic circle happy or unhappy. This is specially so among the Hindus, whose laws of inheritance and succession to property are peculiar and very complicated. There are maternal and paternal cousins and nephews. The last are the most formidable, when they are adversely situated and most favourable when they are sympathetic and loving. The condition of the planets who become Gnathikarakas will determine the attitude of the cousins and the rules for judging of these have already been laid down in the previous NOTES and explanations. SU. 18. - Thnsya darascha. The planet who gets less degrees than the gnathikaraka becomes Darakaraka or lord of wife. NOTES The use of cha in this sutra indicates plurality and includes the examination of the various Bhavas or significations from Lagna, Pada Lagna and Upapada Lagna, which technicalities will be explained later on in the NOTES. Jaimini suggests that the results should not be foretold simply by the consultations of the karakas alone, but also by the Bhavas from Lagna; Pada Lagna and Upapada Lagna. The Science of astrology, specially the foretelling of the future, is highly complicated and requires the highest form of intelligence, and the most profound forms of analytical powers to unravel its mysteries and make the future predictions correct. This science as well as other sciences require great intelligence and erudition, and this will be so specially with astrology which deals with all the phenomena in the world and which, therefore. requires the most comprehensive and grasping intellect to understand its principles. SU. 19. -Matra saha putrameke samamananthi. Some Acharyas or authors hold that the Matru and putrakarakas may be represented by one and the same planet, that is these two Bhavas, lordship of mother and children may be judged by the same planet. NOTES Here this union may be interpreted in two ways, viz, Matrukaraka includes Putrakaraka, and therefore these two Bhavas may be foretold by the lord of mother or by the lord of children. The planet next in degrees to Bhratrukaraka becomes Matrukaraka, and the planet next in degrees to Matrukaraka becomes Putrakaraka. What Jaimini apparently means is that by the planet next in degrees to Bhratrukaraka, may be foretold about the prosperity and adversity of the mothers and the children. Since Jaimini gives pada, ghatika and upapada Lagnas as also the Lagna for the consultation for results, difficulties and confusion have been removed and the welfare and misfortunes of mother and children may be easily analysed and predicted. SU. 20.-Bhaginyurathassyalaha kaniyajjananee cheti. . Some say that from Kuja should be ascertained particulars regarding brothers and sisters, brother-in law, younger brothers and step-mothers. Some others hold that predictions relating to step-mother should be made from the 8th house. However this latter view is not approved by all. NOTES From Ara or Kuja the sisters. wife's brothers, younger brothers and mother must be examined. In Sutras 15 and 16 reference to find out the lord of mother has been made. Why then again mention about mother? Here from Mars we have to find elder and younger sisters, brothers of wife, younger brother, step-mother and the maternal aunts. Ara or Kuja is the permanent or Naisargika Bhratrukaraka or lord of brothers. Some authors by pronouncing Aratha in short A, make it A = 0, Ra = 2 and Tha 6 =0.26 and reading it in the reverse order we get 620. This divided by 12 will give us remainder 8. And ask the readers to find out the above events from the 8th house from Lagna. Jaimini does not approve of it. SU. 21.-Mathuladayo bandhavo matrusojatiya ittyuttarataha. From Mercury should be ascertained details relating to maternal uncles, maternal aunts and other maternal relations. NOTES Take the planet next to Ara or Kuja and he will be Budha. The order of the planets must always be remembered as in the weekdays-Ravi; Chandra, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra and Sani. Therefore when the author says Uttarataha or take the next planet, it clearly means Budha. From Budha, maternal aunts, maternal uncles and other maternal relations like step-mothers should be found out. Thus say some others. This means that Jaimini is not in agreement with the views of these writers. Like Kechit in Brihat Jataka, Ekey in Jaimini is used to indicate other schools of thought in Astrological predictions. SU. 22.-Pitamahou pathiputraviti gurumukhadeva janiyat. From Guru the paternal grandmother and grandfather, the husband and children must be found out. SU. 23.-Patnipitarau swasurou matamaha ityante vasinaha. From the next planet from Guru, viz., Sukra, the parents of the wife, or parents-in-law, paternal and maternal aunts, maternal grandfather and grandmother, and Ante Vasina or disciples must be found out. NOTES If two or three planets get the lordship by getting the same degrees, then find out who has got the greater number of minutes and seconds, and if the planets are equal in all these degrees and minutes and seconds then we are recommended to take the Nisarga or permanent lords for the welfare of the particular events. I shall give here the Naisargika lordships of planets. . Ravi.-Atmaprabhavasakti or soul force, reputation, vitality and father. , Chandra.-Manas, Matru, Mani-Mind, Mother and Gems. Kuja.-Bhumi, Satwa, Bhratru-Lands, Strength and Brothers. Budha.-Pragnya, Matula, Buddhi, Vacha-intelligence, uncle, wisdom and speech. Guru.-putra, Vidya, Dhana, Grtana-Children, Education, Wealth and Spiritual development. Sukra.-Kama, Indriasukha, Kalatra-passion, sense pleasures and wife. Sani.-Ayushyam, Jeevanopayam, Maranam- longevity, means of livelihood and death. Rahu.-Matamaha or maternal grandfather, Vishakaraka or lord governing poison. Keru.-- Pitamaha or paternal grandfather and Kaivalyakaraka or one who gives final basis. . I have given here only the most salient points and for greater details I refer my readers to my English translation of Sarwarthachintamani. SU. 24. - Monzdojyayan Grah eshu. Among all the planets, Ravi, Chandra, Kuja, Budha, Guru, Sukra and Sani, Saturn is the least powerful. NOTES Varaha Mihira observes in ascribing the Veeryabala thus -Sa, Ku, Bu, Gu, Su, Cha, Ra meaning Sani is the least powerful in Veeryabala ; next comes Kuja, then Budha, then Guru, then Sukra, then Chandra and Ravi represents the .strongest in, Veeryabala. Some writers and commentators give the following interpretation which may also be acceptable. Mandojyayan ltyuttarataha. Next to Sukra comes Sani in Sutra 23. Therefore from Sani must be found out the prosperity and misfortunes of the elder brothers. SU. 25.-Pracheevruttirvishamabheshu. In all odd signs the counting must be in the right direction. NOTES Mesha, Mithuna, Simha, Thula, Dhanus and Kumbha are odd signs. In all these signs the counting must be from left to right. I will explain in clearer terms. Say we want the 5th from Mesha. Then count as Mesha, Vrishabha, Mithuna, Kataka, Simha and so forth. SU. 26. - Paravrutyottareshu. In even signs the counting must be in the reverse order. NOTES Take Vrishabha and we want the 6th from it. There we get Vrishabha, Mesha, Meena, Kumbha, Makara and Dhanus. Take Thula. It is an odd sign, suppose we want the 4th. Then Thula, Vrischika, Dhanus and Makara. Take Vrischika and we want the 6th from it. Then we have Vrischika, Thula, Kanya, Simha, Kataka and Mithuna. In fact, in all odd signs the procedure is in the right direction. in even signs we count backwards like the movements of Rahu and Ketu in reverse order. Then follows a short but very difficult Sutra. Brevity may be the soul of composition, but it will be the thorny path to the commentators and readers, with ordinary intelligence and education. SU. 27.-Nakwachit. In some places or signs this does not apply. NOTES Here the brevity of the Sutra offers the greatest confusion. What are the places or signs where these rules do not apply. When a general principle is laid down why should there be any exceptions ? If we had excellent commentators, who were almost equal to the original authors and some of whom were even superior to their originals, many of the Sanskrit Sciences would have been sealed letters and none of the modern scholars, though brilliant, have got that spiritual capacity and concentration of mind to enable them to go beyond the screens and find out the literary gems which were hidden in the deep mines of Sanskrit Literature. If the ancient authors have been held as great benefactors to the literary world, .the commentators for those works should. be considered even greater benefactors. What would have been the use of the Vedas, if they had not been handled by the renowned two commentators Bhatta ' Bhaskara and Vidyaranya. Sanskrit Sciences are put in technical styles and Sutras and unless the commentators are scholars of great genius and of equal capacity, the original works would have remained almost inaccessible and unintelligible to the modern generation. For in this Sutra there are two words Na negative and Kvachit, at times are occasions. We have no clue to when and how these two words have to be used or interpreted. Gathering information from the ancient commentators this Sutra signifies while the general rule is to count regularly in all odd signs and in the reverse order in the even signs, this rule does not apply to Vrishabha or Vrischika and to Kumbha and Simha. Here it means that in the even signs of Vrishabha and Vrischika, instead of counting in the reverse order we have to count in the right way and in Kumbha and Simha instead of counting in the right way, we have to count in the reverse order. In other signs where such exceptions obtain they will be pointed out in their proper places.

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